Vídeo do debate entre os pesquisadores Joseph Rykwert (Londres) e Francesco Pellizzi (Nova Iorque) durante o congresso internacional de hodologia organizado pelo Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz – Max Planck Institute e pelo eikones NCCR Iconic Criticism da Universidade da Basileia, em maio de 2017.
A Agência Pública de Reportagem e Jornalismo Investigativo elaborou um aplicativo (Android e iOS) com itinerários alternativos ao Circuito Histórico e Arqueológico de Celebração da Herança Africana.
Vale a pena conferir mais essa ferramenta, que vem somar-se ao aplicativo do Projeto Passados Presentes da UFF.
Texto da comunicação oral feita no congresso internacional Streets, Routes, Methods I: Reflections on Paths, Spaces and Temporalities. O evento, ocorrido em Florença no início de maio, foi organizado pelo Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz (Max Planck Institute) e pelo eikones NCCR Iconic Criticism (Universidade da Basileia).
Thank you very much for inviting me to assist to this marvelous conference.
My name is João Carlos Nara Jr. and I work on the Conservation Projects of the heritage listed buildings of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, particularly on the Conservation Projects of the Brazilian National Museum. Aside from Architect, I am also Archaeologist and Historian, and my academic research is about Santa Rita Parish, in the port area of Rio de Janeiro.
Have you ever found a treasure? What would you do if this treasure was black slave bones? This happens with the couple Merced and Petrúcio Guimarães, who found an African burial ground at home.
Based on the Brazilian federal law on archaeological heritage, the family has converted their house into a cultural center to celebrate the Afro-American memory. Merced likes to say that the African slave trade has constituted “a black holocaust”.
This presentation is divided into four parts: First is the need of conceptualization, after these archaeological ﬁndings. Second, the urbanization of the Guanabara shore. Third, the successive control policy of the slave trade. And fourth, the current touristic appeal of the region.
Let’s begin with some questions: How could we think a territorial musealization? The monuments are a function of the past, or can reveal ancient processes? Actually, it is useful to understand the monuments as vectors or nodes more than mere vestiges.
Hidden memories of Afro culture
This premise is important because significant traces of the monarchy were deleted and forgotten with the advent of Brazilian Republic, as well some aspects of the slavery dynamics used to support the prior regime.
Rio de Janeiro was founded in fifteen-sixty-five and became the colonial capital in seventeen-sixty-three. Rio also received the Portuguese kingdom court in eighteen-o-eight. In the community area of Santa Rita parish existed a slave complex until eighteen-fifty.
Surprisingly, forty percent of the ten million African people transferred to America arrived in Brazil, two million of them in Rio de Janeiro, which has already been the most African city of the Atlantic in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Nowadays, the aspiration for social inclusion and several types of research about black culture are bringing back memories hidden in the rich Rio de Janeiro city heritage. Let’s see two interesting approaches to the problem.
Regarded as a city conceived on the sea, Rio de Janeiro is a huge pore. The Greek term πόρος means of passing a river, ford, ferry; narrow part of the sea, strait; paths of the sea; artificial passage over a river, bridge; pathway; duct, opening; aqueduct; port; journey, voyage. Was it a coincidence that Rio de Janeiro (Flumen Ianuarii) may be interpreted “open door” (from ianua, in Latin)?
Porosity is a concept used by Walter Benjamin in his Reflections on Naples, and applied to Rio de Janeiro by Bruno Carvalho, Professor from Princeton University, to explain the cultural history of the city.
Another approach method may be the rescue of the maritime paths of slave trades, overgrown by the Guanabara Bay waters, yet noticeable in his islands, ancient piers, and historical neighborhood.
Rio de Janeiro harbor region
[Showing maps about the urban evolution of Rio de Janeiro.]
Maritime paths of slave trades
The slave traffic indeed obeyed a method, involving sanitarian surveillance, customs house, quarantine, docks, eventual fattening houses, commercial booths, and even a specific burial ground to pretos novos (namely, newcomer slaves, especially who had died before the sale).
Such an intricate system deserves a complex narrative. This approach may offer a more insightful perception of the slave monuments and their relationships with landscape and temporalities.
Therefore, this approach to the slave trade tracks in Rio de Janeiro can help to elude the political orchestration of the archaeological findings in the context of urban revitalization lead by the city hall, likewise the social activist’s framework imposed upon the materiality of the African diaspora in the carioca harbor region.
Afterward Valongo… back to Santa Rita
The previous mayor, Eduardo Paes, has created the Historical and Archaeological Circuit for the African Heritage Celebration. The current one, Marcelo Crivella, deserves to construct a territorial Museum of Slavery and Freedom. The Valongo Wharf is at the heart of the both ideas.
The Valongo Wharf proposal for inscription on the World Heritage list will be soon appreciated by UNESCO. Its proposal summons up three controversial arguments: relative historical value, symbolic dimension, and sensitive heritage.
Meanwhile, challenging cursory explanations reliant on mass tourism, the Valongo African burial ground, hosted by Merced and Petrúcio Guimarães, continues to be open to the visitors.
Even though, few researchers have studied Santa Rita church, the first rococo church of America, who was the source of the tricky urbanization of the shore. Under Santa Rita plaza, the first official African cemetery is hidden. But this will be my upcoming investigation.
Thank you very much!
Bruno Carvalho é professor de cultura hispano-portuguesa na Princeton University. Carioca da gema, escreveu um delicioso livro — premiado no exterior, mas não traduzido aqui — em que descreve a história cultural da Cidade Maravilhosa à luz da Praça Onze.
A “imortal” Praça Onze do samba-enredo Bum Bum Praticumbum Prugurundum da Império Serrano é um desses “poros” explorados pelo autor para adentrar na fronteira da Cidade Nova, onde a Pequena África encontrava o Bairro Judeu.
Πόρος é um termo grego que significa vau, fiorde, travessia; estreito; rota marítima; ponte; caminho; duto, abertura; aqueduto; porto; jornada, viagem. Terá sido mera coincidência que a Guanabara tenha sido chamada, em português castiço, “Ria de Janeiro”, isto é, “abertura da porta (ianua)”?
Leitura obrigatória para repensar o Rio de Janeiro não como cidade dividida, mas como cidade porosa, a partir do rico acervo de fontes históricas, teóricas e literárias trazidas ao debate sobre a urbanização e a modernidade cariocas. Excelente modelo metodológico para as pesquisas acadêmicas sobre a Cidade Nova e Cidade Velha, o Rio de antes e o Rio de sempre.
CARVALHO, Bruno. Porous city: a cultural history of Rio de Janeiro (from 1810s onward). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Ocorre em Florença, Itália, nos dias 5 e 6 de maio, a conferência internacional Streets, Routes, Methods I: Reflections on Paths, Spaces and Temporalities (outro link aqui), organizado pelo Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz – Max Planck Institute e o eikones NCCR Iconic Criticism da Universidade da Basileia.
A relação da expansão da Freguesia de Santa Rita com as rotas do tráfico negreiro na Guanabara será apresentada no segundo dia do evento.
Paths can be serpentine, straight and anything in between; they might traverse barely accessible mountains, like the Inca Trail, or be straight, like desire lines. Paths come before roads, survive into the time of roads, or reappear in response to them. Paths tend to be overgrown, to disappear – in the desert sand – to be overbuilt or abandoned. They have their temporalities, seasons and spatialities, between proximity and distance. Paths are therefore not purely spatial affairs. Paths have a genuine temporal dimension beyond the duration of a traveler’s journey. Paths can be seen as chronotopoi, with literary, pictorial and cinematographic histories. Paths must be trodden in order to survive, exemplifying the Heraclitian formula μεταβάλλον α` ναπαύεται (‘it is in changing that things find repose’). The temporal dimension of paths ultimately allows us to overcome the sterile dichotomy between real and imagined paths (metaphors, allegories, models). They have a rich life in the world of metaphors, intrinsic to the notion of met-hodos, based on the Greek word for way, or path. This allies paths to language and, more specifically, writing, whose elements are also repetitions, tracks that are ‘inked in’ It is the remembered, the described, and thereby the reusable and transferable path. Paths within language can become ritual tools for the creation of new ones.
Beyond the above mentioned approaches to paths, the conference will explore their relationship to the environment, in line with the eco-art historical project at the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz. How do paths, trails and routes shape or even create landscape? What is the interplay of geomorphology, flora and fauna, animal and human agency? Paths introduce directionalities, itineraries and nets into the environment, they are linked to technologies of transport and movement; they offer viewpoints, changing horizons or deep immersion into flora or architecture; experiencing them is a multi-sensorial endeavor. Under the hodological conditions of global urban environments and post / industrial landscapes, paths run across streets, they can be subversive, democratic or pragmatic. They can be reinstalled as nostalgic evocations of a lost or overcome past, of rural or pastoral life, or serve mass tourism as well as new ecological approaches.
Organized by Hannah Baader, Adam Jasper, Stefan Neuner, Gerald Wildgruber and Gerhard Wolf
Friday, 5 May 2017
09:30 Hannah Baader (Florence/Berlin) and Stefan Neuner (Basel)
Welcome and Introduction
10:15 Philip Ursprung (Zurich)
Volcano Walks: Following the Explorer Franz Junghuhn on the Island of Java
11:00 Bas Princen (Rotterdam)
12:00 Catalina Ospina (Chicago)
At a Crossroads: the Emergence of Mopa Mopa Images in the Colonial Andes
12:45 Marco Musillo (Florence)
The Ecology of Silent Descriptions: Semantic and Symbolical Paths towards the King of Trees
13:30 Lunch Break
15:00 Himanshu Burte (Mumbai)
Path, Place, and Network: The Politics of Roads in Mumbai
15:45 John Xaviers (Noira, Uttar Pradesh)
Mattancherry Jew Street
17:00 Maia Mania (Tbilisi)
„Le chemin des anes, le chemin des hommes …“
17:45 Lutz Robbers (Oldenburg)
Paths and Lines: Negotiations in Architectural Image Practices
18:45 Presentation of Works by Bas Princen
19:15 Joseph Rykwert (London) and Francesco Pellizzi (New York)
Saturday, 6 May 2017
09:15 Fabian Horn (Munich)
The Conceptualization “Life is a Journey” in Early Greek Poetry and Thought
10:00 Velizar Sadovski (Vienna)
The Roads of Indo-Iranian Ritual: Multidimensional Sacred Space and Topology of Transcendence
11:15 Gérard Chouin (Williamsburg, VA)
(Im)Materiality, Diachrony, and Spatiality: Preliminary Thoughts about Three Dimensions of Long-Distance
‘Trade’ Routes in Medieval to Early Modern West Africa
12:00 João Carlos Nara Jr. (Rio de Janeiro)
African Diaspora in Guanabara Bay: Slave Paths, Maritime Routes and Trade Streets in the Rio de Janeiro of 18th Century
12:45 J. Lorand Matory (Durham, NC)
At the Crossroads: Afro-Atlantic and Central European Ethics of Intersectionality
13:30 Lunch Break
15:00 Martin Thiering (Berlin/Rome)
Implicit and Tacit Knowledge in Flavio Biondo’s Historiographical and Geographical “Italia Illustrata”
15:45 Antonieta Reis Leite (Coimbra)
Paths, Spaces and Temporalities on the Azores Islands Settlement (Sixteen Century). Methods to the
Creation of a New Landscape.
16:30 Nuno Grancho (Coimbra)
Representation of Urban Spaces and Temporalities in the Colonial City of Diu
17:15 Gerhard Wolf (Florence)
Concluding Remarks & Final Discussion
Passeios a pé, de baixo custo, que têm como vantagem a proximidade entre os pontos visitados, e que permitem conhecer as construções do Rio Antigo. — Bom, não é verdade? O Rio Antigo é, simplesmente, o Brasil Antigo. A sede da Colônia, a Corte Imperial, o berço da República: onde há mais recordações dessas fases da nação do que na Cidade Maravilhosa?
Forçoso é reconhecer que Rio de Janeiro, apesar das reformas urbanas, ainda necessita de mais conservação, sinalização e limpeza. Mas acredito que conhecer suas riquezas escondidas é o primeiro passo para estimular o atendimento a essas necessidades.
De certo modo, pode-se dizer que a antiga Freguesia de Santa Rita, diferente do resto da Cidade, possui um roteiro oficial. De fato, a Prefeitura do Rio, através do Decreto 34.803/2011, criou o Circuito Histórico e Arqueológico de Celebração da Herança Africana. Naturalmente, esse roteiro não esgota as possibilidades culturais e históricas da região. A Matriz de Santa Rita, por exemplo, nem mesmo é lembrada, embora tenha recebido o primeiro cemitério de pretos novos, entre 1722 e 1769.
O projeto Passados Presentes acrescenta muitos outros pontos omitidos no circuito da Prefeitura, mas que estão no Inventário dos Lugares de Memória do Tráfico Atlântico de Escravos e da História dos Africanos Escravizados no Brasil (trabalho coordenado por Hebe Mattos, Martha Abreu e Milton Guran, no Laboratório de História Oral e Imagem da UFF, com apoio do Projeto Rota do Escravo da Unesco). Esses dados podem ser consultados também através de um aplicativo para Android.